Holy Tweets: Exploring the Sharing of Quran on Twitter

This is super exciting! Our paper Holy Tweets: Exploring the Sharing of Quran on Twitter is now published in the proceedings of the ACM Human Computer Interaction Journal (link to free arxiv version). The paper is ready to be presented in Oct ’20 during The 23rd ACM Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work and Social Computing.

The paper addresses an important topic, i.e., how Quran is being shared on Twitter and for what purpose — no, not for recruiting jihadist as approached by many Western researchers. We also share valuable discoveries regarding the top shared verses in our dataset, what Quran categories are often shared on social media, and when. We also discovered and shared the concept of “digital memorial accounts” and “digital remembrance agents” — bots that tweet on behalf of someone, alive or dead, to ensure the stream of good deeds continues for them, whether in their current life or when the die.

Top shared verse in the fragment verse category (Ayah 1, Surat Al-Talaq)

Abstract: While social media offer users a platform for self-expression, identity exploration, and community management, among other functions, they also offer space for religious practice and expression. In this paper, we explore social media spaces as they subtend new forms of religious experiences and rituals. We present a mixed method study to understand the practice of sharing Quran verses on Arabic Twitter in their cultural context by combining a quantitative analysis of the most shared Quran verses, the topics covered by these verses, and the modalities of sharing, with a qualitative study of users’ goals. This analysis of a set of 2.6 million
tweets containing Quran verses demonstrates that online religious expression in the form of sharing Quran verses both extends offline religious life and supports new forms of religious expression including goals such as doing good deeds, giving charity, holding memorials, and showing solidarity. By analysing the responses
on a survey, we found that our Arab Muslim respondents conceptualize social media platforms as everlasting, at least beyond their lifetimes, where they consider them to be effective for certain religious practices, such as reciting Quran, supplication (dua), and ceaseless charity. Our quantitative analysis of the most shared verses of the Quran underlines this commitment to religious expression as an act of worship, highlighting topics such as the hereafter, God’s mercy, and sharia law. We note that verses on topics such as jihad are shared much less often, contradicting some media representation of Muslim social media use and practice.

I’m excited to hear your thoughts and comments on this work.

Top shared verse in the complete verse category (Ayah 1, Surat Al-Fath)

My Experience at the Internet Research 15 Doctoral Colloquium

I just got back from Korea where I was attending IR15: Boundaries and Intersections (AoIR ’15). The main focus of this years conference was on studies and workshops that are engaging with complexities arising from points of intersection within and beyond the digital world. So, submissions included topic on the interface between the techno- and the –social and digital mobilities between and through spaces. Many other topics were discussed (please refer to the call for proposals for more information on IR15.) During my time in the conference I had an opportunity to discuss my work with great mentors and Ph.D. students from different countries, such as Australia, France, and England. It was really interesting to talk with other people about the different methods and theories they work with, and to get their feedback on mine.

It was my great pleasure to have been officially selected to attend the conference’s Doctoral Colloquium which was organized this year with the help of Microsoft Research Social Media Collective lab in New England. The full-day pre-conference workshop was divided into 4 sessions and organized in a way to allow us to breakout in a smaller group and discuss and then come together to state the highlights of our discussion to the larger group. The first session was about introducing our current work. In this session we discussed our work with our assigned mentor and receive critical feedback and comments on our topic and state of our research. My mentor for this session was Christian Sandvig, who is an Associate Professor at the University of Michigan. Christian, gave me great and practical feedback on the framing of my work and narrowing it down to a manageable dissertation. The Second session was about knowing our audience, where we discussed ways to navigate disciplinary intersections with our mentor. My mentor for this session was Sharif Mowlabocus, who is a Senior Lecturer (Assoc. Prof.) in Digital Media at the University of Sussex, UK. My time with Sharif was very useful, as he helped me navigate the different disciplines of my research and the interesting intersections between privacy, transnationalisim and social media. The third session was about become a teacher and a researcher at the same time. My mentor for this session was Sun Sun Lim, who is Assistant Dean for Research at the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences and Associate Professor at the Department of Communications and New Media, National University of Singapore. Sun sun, had such great advice on teaching and managing time. She told me that one thing I need to keep in mind ==> not showing fear or lack of self-confidence in the classroom because “students smell fear” and they are there to learn from someone they assume know something more than them #truth #teachingwisdom. The forth session was about the professional life after the Ph.D. My mentor for this session was Airi Lampinen, who is a social scientist with an eye out for the everyday efforts needed to regulate interpersonal boundaries in the context of networked communication technologies. Airi, was great in giving me practical advice on how to approach the job market, especially that I am looking for an internship this year and she’s got a great experience with hiring committees. Finally, we had a closing discussion session as a full group to reflect on the day and the takeaways.

I really encourage every Ph.D. student (who passed their qualifiers or not yet ) to consider IR16: Digital Imaginaries, which will be held in Phoenix, AZ, USA, 21-24 October, 2014. Please feel free to send me any questions regarding the conference or my work.


Facebook Posts Scraper (Tool) (It is up again!)

I am sure many of you would like some help scraping – scraping is a technique of extracting information from websites – the posts of a specific Facebook group. For example, when I was working on one of my early projects entitled Youth, ICTs, and Democracy in Egypt with the Technology & Social Change Group (TASCHA) at the UW – Information School, we needed to undergo a qualitative coding exercise for approximately 700 Facebook posts from the April Youth Movement Facebook group.  However, at the time of data collection, Facebook’s format did not enable users to browse through old posts. Additionally, the number of daily posts was immense; manual collection would have been prohibitively time-consuming. Therefore, I quickly realized the need for an application to save me  time while collecting Facebook posts. In order to collect Facebook posts, we developed an application using the Facebook Graph application programming interface (API), which is a way for developers to access Facebook data and build applications. 

This is the link to the application http://groupbrowser.azurewebsites.net/

How to Use the Application: 

1. At the beginning Log in with your Facebook account.

Screen Shot 2014-01-20 at 12.01.48 PM

2. After logging in, add the name of the Facebook group that you want to extract the posts from  ( I recommend copying it from Facebook)
3. Add the start Date of the posts you want to display
4. Add the end Date of the posts you want to display
5. Add the Number of posts
6. Click Submit

Screen Shot 2014-01-20 at 12.06.16 PM

The results are going to show in a bulleted list for readability and ease of use.

I really hope you could benefit from using this free application and feel free to ping me if you had any questions or concerns. Also, I would like to hear from you, what do you think of the App ? Would it be beneficial for you ?

Update: I just published a new post for the Facebook Page Scrapper!

Discovering the Twitter Botnet

In my last  blog post, I discussed our data preparation and collection. In this blog post I will start talking about 1- a brief of some of our preliminary findings 2- The discovery of the botnet in our dataset.

To recap my last two blog posts, I want to remind you that we first, collected tweets from twitter to analyze tweets from the Syrian civil war. We did that by selecting 3 violent and 3 nonviolent events, after that we conducted 2 different kinds of analyses: log analysis (from the most re-tweeted tweets based on content) and network analysis (from the high account influence on a network diagram) on the re-tweeted tweets. In the last step, we compared the top retweeted accounts (twitter handles) from the log analysis and the network analysis then we conducted a comparative analysis between the top re-tweeted accounts across the different event types (3 violent and 3 nonviolent events).

The results from these 2 different analyses were:

1- In the nonviolent events data set, people were not tweeting about the salient events we selected (3 violent and 3 nonviolent events). For example, Angelina Jolie’s visit to the Syrian refugees’ camp in Jordan on September 11, 2012, wasn’t discussed in the tweets, however, people were tweeting about war-related issues (e.g., chemical bombs), comparing 9/11 and Syria Civil War.

2- From the salient violent events, we picked Houla Massacre that occurred on 5/25/2012 and compared the authors of top most retweeted tweets from the Log Analysis and the top retweeting accounts (we identified these by looking at the node size a.k.a node centrality) in the Network Analysis. The results of our analysis showed that they were totally different (Top retweeting authors’ ≠ Top retweeting nodes)

3- We compared our findings with the Influence Matrix (Source: Klout.com) Just to better understand our results. We found that we were interested in 3 different types of Twitter users: Curators, Celebrity, and Activist.


We were curious to know if we could find any celebrity type in the data set, someone who has both high content influence and high account influence. So we compared top retweeted nodes to the entire log analysis (450 posts), searching for any overlapping cases. We found one such user account: @g1. 

We wanted to learn more about this user’s attributes however, the account was suspended. Therefore, we started browsing the name associated to the bot, both in English and Arabic, on the Internet. We found some interesting information, however, none was related to the war. We suspected that this person might be the human user behind @g1. However, she did not have much of an online presence, which made us suspect that she is the one running her account (at that time we started suspecting that we might be dealing with a fake account of a celebrity)

In the network graph, @g1 was clustered with 19 other users, 17 of whom were suspended. Wondering what might be the reason behind this large number of account suspensions, we started following @g1 across different events in the data set.

Content Analysis

To better understand what might be the reason for suspending @g1 account we conducted a high-level content analysis on her tweets archived during the period of April to December 2012. We found that the account had stopped posting (therefore, presumably had been suspended) on November 20, 2012. Also, from our high level content analysis we discovered that most of tweets are highly political, so this wasn’t the reason for suspension by twitter.

From there, we started conducting the same analyses on the accounts clustered with @g1 across all of the six events. As a result, we identified 42 Twitter handles that had stopped posting on November 20, 2012. Interestingly, we found that the majority of these accounts got suspended on the same date, November 20, 2012. Moreover, we found that all of their last tweets were around 6:30 AM UTC indicating a systemic ban. Lastly, we discovered that they all shared the same last tweet.

Additional analyses on the data set and we discovered

  1.  21 additional accounts that had stopped posting at that time, (thus 63 accounts in total).
  2. All of the accounts were retweeting, specifically with RT, the one unique account: @h1
  3. All shared the same last retweet content.
  4. All stopped tweeting almost at the same time around 6:30 AM UTC, November 20, 2012.
  5. Each user was tweeting  continuously round the clock.

Why is this network a botnet?

What made us suspect that this might be a botnet were the following indicators:

  1. The links attached to tweets
  2. The links attached to RT
  3. The frequency of tweeting
  4. Tweet text (The 3 letter random hashtag)

An example is this tweet: “RT @h1: #سوريا #Syria لوهان ستمثّل في أغنية مصوّرة لليدي غاغا http://t.co/uv2e3OGV #xmy” (English translation: RT @h1: Lindsay Lohn to appear on Lady Gaga’s next music video #Syria ##سوريا http://t.co/uv2e3OGV #xmy).

When we searched for the sentence “Lindsay Lohan to appear on Lady Gaga’s next music video” in Arabic, we found a news headline on the website http://www.elnashrafan.com with the exact text. However, when clicking on the link, we got redirected to http://alwatan.sy.

Another example is: “#سوريا #Syria بدء امتحانات الفصل الثاني للمرحلة الجامعية الأولى في جامعة #دمشق http://t.co/OTUpaarW #dmq” (English translation: The second midterms starts for University of # Damascus #Syria #سوريا http://t.co/OTUpaarW #dmq).

The botnet was using a random 3 letter hashtag in all it’s tweets #xmy #dmq . Why were they adding this hashtag is something we still don’t know. We are assuming that this is their tracking method or reach testing technique.

Lastly, clicking on the link embedded in this tweet redirects to an article on the a new website,  which is an Arabic independent news forum.

These are the two examples of many similar incidents. Most of the tweets that were randomly tested lead to one of three websites.

Currently, we are still conducting content and network analyses to understand this botnet behavior and the motives behind its creation. One of the things we are pretty confident about is the botnet tweets were all in support of Alasad’s government and that it was followed by real people, who also supports the current Syrian regime. We asked ourselves: Was this twitter botnet created at the time when the majority of tweets on the Syrian civil war were against the regime to influence the public opinion and to amplify the voices of the people who are pro-regime, maybe?

In the meantime, stay tuned for further results of this project.

*The following and follower data was collected on March 18, 2013, not on the date of the event. For the top RT nodes, we only used data for 3 accounts because 17 accounts were suspended.)

** This project is in collaboration with Daisy Yoo and David McDonald from the iSchool at the University of Washington. Please don’t make copies of the content until you contact the blog admin.

***The twitter handles used in the post are not real they are pseudonyms created by the team.


How did Angelina Jolie help us discover the botnets (Cont.)

In my previous post, I started discussing our latest project on the role of Twitter in the Syrian civil, where I talked a little bit about the research objective, hypotheses and new directions. The research new direction was a result of the botnets that we started finding in our network analysis.

In this blog post, I want to talk about our 2 important phases of the study, first, the data preparation and collection phase, second, the data analysis phase. In my next blog post I will start talking about the data analysis.

Data preparation and collection

Since April 2012, we have been archiving Twitter posts including the following hashtags: #Syria, #Damascus, #Aleppo, #Hama, #Idlib, #Homs, سوريا, #سورية, #دمشق, #حلب, #حماه , #ادلب#, and حمص#.

As I mentioned in the previous blog post, we wanted to know how retweeting on a day of violent events might be different from a day of non-violent events (if at all). Therefore, for the scope of analyses, we purposefully selected three dates for each event type. First, we browsed the Timeline of the Syrian Civil War from many news portals to choose three violent events:

  1.  Houla Massacre on May 25, 2012
    The UN human rights office reported that at least 190 civilians were killed, including 34 women and 49 children, in Houla, Homs province.
  2. Hama Massacre on June 6, 2012
    78 civilians were executed in a massacre by the Syrian army and Shabiha in the small village of Qubair, part of Maarzaf, Hama province. Over 140 people were killed across Syria, including in the Qubair and Maarzaf massacres.
  3. Damascus Massacre on December 12, 2012.
    Three bombs exploded outside the Interior Ministry building in Damascus, killing five and injuring at least 23 people. The LCC reported 113 civilians killed by the Syrian army, including 41 in Aleppo and 31 in the Damascus suburbs.

Violent events
Violent events (graph credits to Daisy Yoo)

Next, we browsed headlines from the Middle East section of the BBC News website to choose three non-violent events:

1. Syria’s Olympics chief denied visa for London Games on June 22, 2012
The head of the Syrian Olympic Committee, General Mowaffak Joumaa, has been refused a visa to travel to London for the Games [1].

2. Angelina Jolie visits Syrian refugees in Jordan on September 11, 2012
Actress Angelina Jolie has called for an end to the violence in Syria after meeting refugees in Jordan’s Zaatari camp [2].

3. Christian elected as head of Syrian National Council on November 10, 2012.
The Syrian National Council, the main political opposition to Bashar Al-Assad’s regime, defied accusations of being Islamist-led by electing a Christian opposition activist George Sabra to the presidency on Friday night [3].

non-Violent events
non-Violent events (Collage credits to Daisy Yoo)

After we selected the salient events, the next step was to start the data analysis phase. Considering the lag time in the spread of news, for each event, a data set was collected over a 3 day period: from 00:00 AM (UTC) one day prior to the date of event to 23:59 PM (UTC) one day after. Please note that we use UTC instead of local time. Later in the study, we realized that this might be problematic in terms of sampling validity. However, the difference between Syria local time and UTC is only 2 hours (UTC/GMT + 2 hours) and because we gave enough lag time (± 24 hours) we suspect the effect would be insignificant. Another thing we realized after we discovered the botnets was that the ± 24 hours would provide us with better understanding to the bot behavior.

Data Analyses

Our data analysis phase included the following:

a) Network analysis: For each of the events, we generated a graph of the RT network. Due to legibility issues, we applied edge-cut at minimum of 3 times retweeted (if retweeted less than 3 times, the edges were cut off from the network analysis). Through this analysis, we measured account influence. With the graphs, we examined clustering patterns and identified high-profile users based on the size of the node and the density of the edges.

b) Log analysis: We generated a log data set of 150 most retweeted posts per day, consequently, a total of 450 most retweeted posts for each event. Through this analysis, we measured content influence. We identified high-profile users based on the number of retweets during the period of the event.

c) High-profile user analysis: We compared sets of high-profile users between the network analysis and the log analysis. This helped us to identify distinct types of influencers, which we will share in the findings.

d) Cluster analysis: From the network analyses, we identified a unique cluster and monitored its trend across the timeline of events. This helped us to understand how a network might evolve over time to increase its influence on a microblogging space.

The 4 different data analysis methods we used on our dataset resulted in 3 major findings that I will be talking about in my next blog post. However, before I end this post I would like to give you a sneak peek of next weeks post.

The Evolution of the botnet
The Evolution of the botnet (Photo Credit to Daisy Yoo)

The This is the graph shows the evolution of the activist-botnet across events timeline. Who are they, what were they saying? What was their influence? I will answer all these questions in my next posts. Stay tuned!